Patients with thalassemia traits do not require medical or follow-up care after the initial diagnosis. Iron therapy should not be used unless a definite deficiency is confirmed and should be discontinued as soon as the potential Hb level for that individual is reached. Counseling is indicated in all persons with genetic disorders, especially when the family is at risk of a severe form of disease that may be prevented
Patients with severe thalassemia require medical treatment, and a blood transfusion regimen was the first measure effective in prolonging life, it was found to provide patients with many benefits, including reversal of the complications of anemia, elimination of ineffective erythropoiesis and its complications, allowance of normal or near-normal growth and development, and extension of patients' life spans.
Blood transfusion should be initiated at an early age when the child is symptomatic and after an initial period of observation to assess whether the child can maintain an acceptable level of Hb without transfusion.