Knowing the proper usage of medicines and following the instructions of the doctor or the pharmacist means the difference between the success and failure of the treatment. The drugs and medicines are chemical compounds, which react with each other and with different foods. As a result, improper usage of drugs causes a lot of problems and dangerous side effects.
Asthma in children
It is one of the allergies, which is transferred hereditarily from fathers to sons. Any kind of adult allergy such as the sinus allergy or eczema may reflect hereditarily in form of asthma.
· Chronic infection which attacks the air path and leads to narrowing it down.
· It is accompanied by difficulty in breathing and coughing and wheezing.
· It comes at intervals that may last for moments or days.
· It might be severe or light.
Factors that trigger asthma
· Strong perfumes or chemical compounds.
· Domestic animal hairs.
· Smoke and dust.
· Respiratory system infections.
Is it possible to prevent asthma
Prevention from the factors that cause asthma is the best way to avoid its occurrence. The most guidelines for that is the following:
· Cleaning and washing the openings of the air conditioners daily.
· Cleaning the carpet continuously or removing it and using ceramic tiles instead.
· Washing the bed sheets with hot water weekly.
· Getting rid of the domestic animals, insects and cockroaches.
· Avoid burning scents or smoking inside the house.
· Taking the prescribed medicines regularly.
How to treat asthma
The asthma is treated by removing the causes or decreasing the allergy of the child against this cause. The condition of any child may improve if a plan of treatment is followed. If the child is not treated, the disease will continue and will be more severe. Through the cooperation and participation of the doctor, a plan of treatment may be as follows:
This includes those who suffer when exposed to allergens or when practicing sport exercises, or the children who have infections of the upper respiratory system. These do not need prevention drugs, but are treated at that time. The treatment includes using some drugs which widen the air ways of the bronchus before exercising or before being exposed to the allergens. These drugs are administered by inhalation (the spray).
Simple chronic cases
These need daily treatment for prevention, and controlling the symptoms of the asthma by using anti-inflammatory drugs.
Medium chronic cases
These need daily treatment for prevention by using anti-inflammatory n drugs. Long term bronchus widening drugs should be used to control the symptoms especially the night coughing.
Severe chronic cases
It is difficult to completely control the case, but it is possible to alleviate the severity of the symptoms. This needs many daily treatments that include:
· Anti-inflammatory drugs such as cortisone derivatives.
· Long term bronchus-widening drugs.
· Short term bronchus-widening drugs. These are always found and upon request and may be used three to four times.
· Asthma prevention drugs do not cause addiction.
· Cortisone or its derivatives are among the most important and useful anti-inflammatory drugs. This drug does not have any complications if used under medical supervision.
The word “AIDS” is formed from the first letters of the English words that describe the disease: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Syndrome means the groups of symptoms that accompany having a certain disease. Immune deficiency means the failure of the immune system to fulfil its biological functions. The word acquired means: the immune deficiency is not hereditary and is resulting from an infection which was not present before.
What is the factor that causes the disease?
The virus that causes the disease is called (HIV) which is an abbreviation for Human Immune Deficiency. It is noteworthy to mention that the person carrying the virus (the carrier) may look normal for a period of 6 months to 8 and 10 years but he can transmit the infection to others. Few months after the virus is transferred to the human, the body produces antibodies against the virus that could be discovered by a special blood test. It had been scientifically proven that the virus is found in the fluids and discharges of the infected person such as the blood and its products, semen, saliva, tears, the brain fluid, the mother’s milk, and the vaginal discharge. Its concentration is more in the semen and the blood, and it is proven that the blood and semen transfer the AIDS virus.
What are the means of infection?
The AIDS virus may be transferred from the infected person to the healthy person through the following:
· Blood or its products transfusion.
· Repeated use of the same needle by more than one person such as the drugs addicted groups.
· Organ transplants.
· Circumcision or the Chinese needle or cupping if the utensils used are not properly sterilized.
Pregnancy and delivery
If the mother is infected, the virus may be transferred to the child through:
· Inside the uterus during pregnancy.
· During delivery.
· Breast feeding (to a lesser degree).
This is the major means of the transmission and it causes more than 90% of the infection cases, as the infection is transferred by the sexual relationship between males and females or a result of the abnormal sexual relationship between the males or the females when one of them is infected.
The AIDS is not transferred through:
The AIDS is not transferred through living and the social relationships such as:
· Shaking hands and daily interactions.
· Using common plates or drinking cups.
· Blood sucking insects such as mosquitoes.
· Swimming suits.
· Used cloths.
What are conducts that should be followed for the prevention against AIDS In absence of any protective vaccinations and treatments, and as AIDS entails a number of social, cultural, educational and moral factors, and as the AIDS virus does not spread incidentally, but as a result of an individual conduct, we can avoid its infection through avoiding illegal sexual relationships, following the normal family life, religious teachings, and avoid using the same needle by more than one person
Diabetes is one of the non-contagious wide spread contemporary diseases. According to recent statistics, the percentage of this disease in the Arab World does not exceed 7- 9% of the population.
In the UAE, statistics at the Ministry of Health in 1999, indicated that the mortality rate resulting from this disease reached 2.3% and it is increasing continuously.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes or the urinary diabetes is the increase in the percentage of the simple sugar (glucose) in the blood that results from digesting the food, resulting from the decrease of the insulin hormone or decrease in its efficiency. The insulin works by getting the glucose inside the body cells. When insulin decreases, the glucose content in the blood increases.
Types of blood sugar
The first type: it is known as the insulin-dependent diabetes:
This occurs when the body fails completely to produce insulin, and it takes place in children and the patient needs to be injected with insulin.
The second type: this is known as the insulin-independent diabetes:
This occurs if the body produces low amounts of insulin and the body is not able to use this amount, and the majority of the urinary diabetes is from the second type. This happens for the people after the age of 40 years.
This occurs for the pregnant women and it will disappear after the delivery. The woman who suffers from pregnancy diabetes will be susceptible for the second type of diabetes later on in her life.
What is the normal level of glucose in the blood?
The normal level of glucose in the blood ranges, after fasting, between 70 – 110 mg / 100 ml of blood. If the level of glucose in the blood exceeded 126 mg / 100 ml of blood, this will be an indicative of diabetes. A range of 110 – 125 mg / ml of blood will be alarming.
How to know there is an increase in the sugar in the blood?
The diabetes symptoms in the adults develop gradually, and will manifest after a while from its incidence. These symptoms are as follows:
· Frequent urinating.
· Feeling excessive thirst and mouth dryness.
· Weigh loss despite excessive eating.
· Fatigue and tiredness when exerting small effort.
· Delay in wound healing.
· Numbness at the limbs.
· Increase in other infections.
Discover: are you susceptible to have the second type of diabetes:
The second type of diabetes is not contagious. Many patients do not feel any symptoms or they may feel the previously mentioned symptoms, but they do not understand that they are indicators for high sugar in the blood. The patient may be surprised during the routine examination that he has higher sugar levels.
The probability of being diabetic increase due to the following factors:
· Family history of being diabetic.(one of the parents or the brothers).
· Disturbances in the glands especially the pancreas.
· Frequent pregnancies.
· Getting old.
· Unhealthy life styles such as : - Not practicing sport activities.
- Alcohol addiction.
· History of pregnancy diabetes.
· High blood pressure and high cholesterol may lead to high sugar in the blood.
What are the consequences of the diabetes?
Failure to control the normal levels of sugar in the blood may lead to long term complications such as:
· Kidney failure.
· Loss of sight.
· Arteriosclerosis especially the blood vessels which feed the heart, the eye, the kidneys, and the feet.
· Brain and heart arrest.
· High blood pressure and difficulty of its control.
How to prevent the urinary diabetes?
Chances of having urinary diabetes may be decreased through following these instructions:
· Watching the weight so it will be within the normal limit.
· Regular sport exercises: practicing sports exercises helps in maintaining the optimum weight and the bodily fitness. Also, the sport exercises help the body to optimize the usage of insulin.
· Avoid smoking: smoking does not have any psychological or health benefits for the smoker.
· Following a balanced and integrated nutritional regime consisting of less of sugar and more fiber and cereal-based foods, in such a way to achieve the optimum weight (the nutrition specialist might be approached in this regard).
· Regular routine examination: this is done through routine testing of the sugar content in the blood, which will help in early diagnosis of the disease. This will lead to early treatment and avoiding the consequences.
· Control the life stresses.
Following healthy life styles will help in avoiding diabetes
Do you suffer from diabetes?
If you really suffer from diabetes, high blood sugar and failure to control it will increase the disease consequences on the long term. So, it is a must to treat the disease and work on controlling it through the following:
· Following the doctor’s instructions, the health educator and the nutrition specialist and doing check ups every three months at least.
You should refer to the nutrition specialist and follow the prescribed nutritional regime he proposes with the following goals:
· Maintaining the proper amount of sugar in the blood.
· Maintaining normal weight in order make use of the insulin.
· Even distribution of carbohydrates and the starch between the major meals while having snacks in between.
· Reducing the fat consumption.
using the diabetes drugs as prescribed by the doctor:
· If a doctor prescribes any drug to control the sugar level, you should follow his instructions precisely and stick to the dosages at the right time.
· Do not try to reduce or increase the dosage, as increasing the dosage may lead to low blood sugar that will cause dangerous consequences. Less dosage will lead to the decrease of the efficiency of the drug that will lead to high blood sugar and failing to control it, and hence the drug will be useless.
· Stick to the specified dosage time as prescribed by the doctor. Do not take the medicine right before taking the food. It is preferable to take the diabetes tablets at least half an hour before taking the food to give the medicine a chance to be absorbed, in order to be used in controlling the blood sugar.
Taking care about the feet:
The diabetes causes changes in the nerves and blood vessels of the feet that will affect the sensation and exposes the patient to easy injury. Also, diabetes delays the healing of the wounds. This may lead to dangerous injuries that have adverse consequences on the foot or the life of the patient. So, it is important to follow these instructions:
· Do not walk bare-footed for any length of distance (make sure your foot is properly protected).
· Wash your feet with warm water and soap daily. Do not use hot water. Use a special towel to dry the feet, especially between the toes.
· Examine the feet daily. Use a small mirror to see the feet. Make sure that there is no crack or wounds (notify the doctor even there is a small wound).
· Avoid tough skin and the cracks by using a cream for moisturizing the skin.
· Wear shoes that fit you exactly and avoid wearing small or large shoes.
· Before wearing your shoes, make sure that there is no foreign or solid body inside the shoes.
· When buying new shoes, do not wear them more than 10 minutes daily till it is soft enough to avoid injuring your toes.
· Wear clean socks daily that are preferably from wool in cold weather and cotton in the hot weather.
· Avoid short clipping of your nails.
· Never sit near to heaters or fire.
Adopt the following life styles:
· Regular sport exercises.
· Avoid anxiety and tensions and control them.
· Stop smoking immediately.
· Control the blood pressure, cholesterol, and fat in the blood.
· Comprehensive medical examination, at least once annually, which includes:
· Examination of the eye, kidneys, fat in the blood, teeth, feet (including the blood vessels and nerves).
· Caring about yourself may require extra efforts, but they are important to prevent or delay the onset of any complications
It is a name that refers to a number of diseases that are characterized by abnormal cell growth and by their ability to attack the neighboring tissues and the organs away from the affected area. Cancer is considered the third death causing reason in the UAE
The most common types of cancer
· Lung cancer.
· Breast and uterus cancers.
· Stomach, rectum, and colon cancers.
What are early signs of cancer?
The symptoms differ according to the affected site. Generally, the doctor has to be consulted when noticing any of the seven warning signs below:
· Change in the stool or the urine.
· Pain and ulcer which do not cure.
· Abnormal hemorrhage and secretion.
· Difficulty in digestion and swallowing.
· Permanent cough or huskiness in the voice.
· Change is the shape of the skin or presence of a skin nevus.
· Enlargement of the breast or any other places.
It is noteworthy to mention that all of these symptoms may be caused by simple disease, but is important to consult the doctor about it.
It is possible to decrease the chances of having cancer by following these proper healthy practices
· Regular and organized examination.
· Avoiding smoking and drinking alcohol.
· Good nutrition and eating more fruits and vegetables.
· Avoiding smoked, salty foods, or foods with preservatives, as much as possible.
· Avoiding breathing environmental pollutants.
· Avoiding direct sunlight for long time.
· Avoiding taking chemical medicines and hormones without an advice of the doctor.
· Avoiding obesity and sport exercising.
· Avoiding all carcinogenic agents at home, work and the community.
· Avoiding the exposure to X-rays unless it is required and according to the doctor’s instructions.
One in every ten women suffers from breast cancer annually. The breast cancer is considered the most common type of cancers among women in UAE. Many women contract the cancer at young age, before the age of 40 years. The probability of having cancer increases if someone in the family has cancer. However, in 75% of these cases the hereditary factor is not the causes as there are some people who have cancer and their families do not have any history of this disease. Early detection of breast cancer leads to decreasing the mortality rate resulting from this disease. This could be done by the following:
· Monthly self-examination of the breast.
· Clinical examination of the breast.
· Diagnostic X-rays of the breast (to detect tumor growth).
We recommend following these instructions:
For women (over the age of 40 years):
· Annual clinical examination of the breast which is conducted by the doctor.
· Annual Diagnostic X-ray.
Women belonging to high risk groups
The examination should be done early in life and according to the importance of the case and the hereditary factors. For example, if the mother or the sister has breast cancer at the age of 35 years, the woman should undergo regular examination at the age of 30 years. We advise all women over the age of 20 years to do the self-examination of the breast.
The self examination of the breast
Why the self-examination of the breast important?
The diagnostic radiographs fail to detect 10% of the breast cancer. Also, there are many women who did not undergo diagnostic examination for the breast cancer and they discover they have this kind of cancer. The self-examination allows the woman to discover lumps in the breast of a size not exceeding 1 cm.
When to conduct the self-examination of the breast?
· Starting from the fifth day to the seventh day of the beginning of the period when the breast is less swollen and less sensitive than during the other days of the month.
· The woman, who reaches the menopause, should select a specific time monthly for the examination, for example the beginning of each month.
· The pregnant woman and the woman who underwent plastic surgery for the breast should regularly do the self-examination.
· The breast-feeding woman could self-examine her breast but after emptying them from the milk.
Method of self-examination of the breast
· Examine your breast in front of the mirror
· Examine your breast to ensure the following:
1- Any changes in the shape and the roundness.
2- Any changes in the texture the color of the skin.
3- Atrophy of the nipples and wrinkling of the skin.
4- Appearance of secretions from the nipples.
How to conduct the self-examination
· Lie down on your back and put a cushion under your right shoulder with the right hand on the back of your head.
· Use the inside of three of your middle fingers of your left hand to feel the lumps in the right breast and the armpit.
· Press strongly to know the texture of your breast. Presence of a strong edge at the lower curve of your breast is considered normal and should not lead to panicking.
· Move your fingers around each of your breasts in an organized manner and use one of the illustrated pictures and repeat the same process each time. This will help you to ensure that you examine your breast comprehensively. The goal is to examine all areas.
· Examine your left breast and armpit by using the fingers of the right hand and using the same procedure for examining your right breast.
· It is possible to examine the breast during taking a bath, as the soap will facilitate the moving of the hands on the wetted skin in front of the mirror.
Proper usage of medicines
Knowing the proper usage of medicines and following the instructions of the doctor or the pharmacist means the difference between the success and failure of the treatment. The drugs and medicines are chemical compounds, which react with each other and with different foods. As a result, improper usage of drugs causes a lot of problems and dangerous side effects. Using more than one type of these drugs will result in their reactions with one another, which will lead to dangerous consequence as a result of these drug interferences. These interferences affect the efficiency of the drugs. In the same time, improper usage of the drugs, as far as the dosage, time, and duration of the treatment will cause adverse effects.
The drug is a chemical compound and its usage may expose you to dangers
Before the doctor prescribes a drug for you, it is important to tell him some information such as:
· If you are currently taking any drug, with or without any prescription, continuously or at intermittent intervals, and if these drugs are antibiotics or anti acidic medicines, pain killers, cough, influenza, diarrhea, vitamins etc.
· If you suffer from any allergy against any drugs.
· If you are pregnant, intending to get pregnant, or breast feeding, some drugs may cause dangerous consequences for the baby, and during pregnancy. The effects of some drugs are transferred to the baby through the milk. So, you should inform the doctor and the pharmacist if you are breast-feeding.
Important guidelines for safe and proper usage of the drugs:
· Listen to your doctor and pharmacist and read the drug instructions.
· Keep a list of all drugs that you are taking, including the dosage, time of taking the drugs and when did you start using them and when you should stop taking them, according to the instructions of the doctor.
· Take the medicines as instructed by the doctor only.
· Do not stop using the drugs by yourself if you feel that you are improving. Continue using the drugs as per the doctor’s instructions. Stopping the drugs without the advice of the doctor may lead to recurrence of the illness and it will be difficult to treat.
· Do not double the dosage by yourself.
· Most drugs work better when there is a constant concentration of the drug inside your body. So, it is important to use the proper dosage and take the drug at the right times.
· If you forget to take any dose, do not panic. Take the missed dosage when you remember it. If it is time to take the next dosage, ignore the dosage that you forgot and return to the same schedule of taking the drug.
· If you feel any abnormal side effects, consult your doctor immediately.
· Do not use anti acidic drugs without a prescription from the doctor, as some of them interfere with other drugs.
· Do not drink tea or coffee or any hot drink when taking the tablets as the hot drinks may destroy or alter the ingredients of the drugs.
· Do not take the medicine with the food before consulting with the doctor as some foods may alter the ingredients of the medicines.
· Store the medicines in dry and safe place and at room temperature and away from sunlight. Do not put them in the fridge unless you are told so. Choosing the bathroom or the kitchen to store the medicines is a wrong decision as the temperature difference and humidity will destroy and disintegrate the medicines.
· You should get rid of old medicines. If you suffer from the old symptoms, do not use the stored medicine.
· Do not give your medicines to anyone and do not take his medicines.
· Close the medicine containers tightly and get rid of the cotton, which is found at some containers, as it will help in accumulating the humidity after opening the containers.
· Keep the medicines in secure places away from the children.
The contagious diseases are transmitted from a person carrying the disease to a healthy person.
What are the causes of contagious diseases?
Bacteria, viruses and parasites, which cause many diseases such as:
Cholera, diarrhea, typhoid, dysentery, diphtheria, tuberculosis, whooping, mumps, measles, German measles, hepatitis, ameba and giardia.
Means of transmitting the disease:
· Direct contact with the patient.
· Mist (when coughing, sneezing or talking).
· Contaminating injuries.
· Insects (infection transmitters).
· Contaminated food or water.
· Animals (such as dogs, rabbits etc).
How to control the spread of the infection:
· Avoid direct contact with the healthy person.
· Providing a source of clean water.
· Ensuring adequate cooking of the foods and protecting them from contamination.
· Washing the hands properly after using the toilet.
· Disposing of the wastes in special bags.
· Taking all immunizations according to the followed regulations.
Microbes (Bacteria and viruses)
These are very minute microorganisms that could be seen only under the electron microscope. They may be coci or rods in shape. The viruses are divided in many types depending on their preference to attack specific tissues of the body. For example the virus that causes polio in children and rabies prefer the nervous cells. When attacking the body, many viral diseases induce good immunity for the body. This enables the person to live without being affected by this virus again, except in rare cases. This attribute is beneficial for the protection against some epidemic diseases such as smallpox. On the other hand, there are some viruses that attack the man many times and at closer intervals without leaving any effect on the immunity, especially the viruses of the common colds and influenza.
These are very minute microorganisms that could only be seen under the electronic microscope. They multiply rapidly and one microbe could produce millions in few hours. There are many types, which are found everywhere. They live in the air, water, skin surface, inside the digestive system and the soil. They are of different shapes, they could be coci, rods, or helical. All of them are not harmful for man and animal, as some of them are very important for their protection. There is a small harmful group that results in many illnesses as a result of the poisons that they secrete. These poisons destroy the cells around them. When these microbes multiply, they invade the body in such a way that exceeds the immunity system and results in infections
What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a term used for the abnormal reduction in the density of the bones and changing in its quality with time. Natural bones resemble the sponge piece that is filled with small pores. In case of osteoporosis, the number of pores decreases and their size increases and the bones become more brittle and lose their firmness and may be easily broken.
The most susceptible bones are the bones of the thighs, arm (directly above the hand) and the spinal vertebrates. The breakage in the vertebrae may lead to the shortness of the individual with such disease, and their backs become curved. The osteoporosis usually develops over many years where the bones become brittle, gradually.
The size of the problem of the osteoporosis
The osteoporosis is more common among the women. The osteoporosis attacks the women in their mid forties, and sometimes in their thirties as well as old ladies. The dangers of breaking the thighs due to the osteoporosis exceed the total dangers of breast, uterus and ovary cancers collectively. About 80% of the people who have breakage of the thighs will be unable to walk after six months. The more dangerous situation is that about 20% of the people die after one year from breaking the thighs. It is difficult to estimate the number of the people who have osteoporosis and did not know that yet. As the disease is not painful, many of these people do not have any idea about having osteoporosis till they break some of their bones. Experts think that about 25% of the women above the age of 50 have osteoporosis and about half of the white women above this age are susceptible to have the osteoporosis.
Try: are you susceptible to have osteoporosis?
(Answer yes or no)
1. Are you slim or have soft body?
2. Are you of 50 years of age or more?
3. Is there any history of osteoporosis in the family?
4. Do you smoke?
5. Do you exercise irregularly?
6. Do you take large amount of caffeine (more than three cups of coffee, tea or cola during one day?).
7. Does your diet contain small amounts of calcium (less than one gram daily)?
8. Are you in your menopause stage?
9. Did the menstrual period stop at an early age (before 45 years)?
10. Were you treated with cortisone and similar medicine for long periods of time?
The more “yes” answers you have, the more chance that you have osteoporosis, so you should consult your doctor.
Preventive measure or reducing the chances of getting osteoporosis
There are some steps that could be followed to decrease the chances of getting exposed to osteoporosis:
After the age of 30 years, the bones start to lose the calcium. So, it is important to take the foods that could supply the body with the required calcium. The sources of calcium include the following:
· Milk and its products such as cheese and yogurt.
· Pulses such as lentils, broad beans, and dried beans
· Green vegetables such as spinach, cauliflower and broccoli.
If you an elderly, vitamin D is very important for you as it is essential in building the bones, which will lead to less chances of breakage. The natural sources of vitamin D are from the sun and from some foods such as sardines, Musa fish, salmon and tuna fish and milk and dairy products. Talk to your doctor about increasing the amount of calcium in your diet.
Regular sport exercising
Regular exercising is beneficial for the bones, balance and coordinated movements, which will lead to decreased chances of falling down. It also, important for the public health and safety as it decreases the chances of getting infected with different diseases such as coronary diseases, obesity, diabetes and protect from the arteriosclerosis and backaches. Before starting any exercising program, ask your doctor to tell you about the type of the best exercise for you.
Stop smoking and drinking alcohol
Smoking and drinking increase the risks of having osteoporosis.
How to diagnose osteoporosis?
The bone density is measured by a test similar to the X-ray, which is called the osteoporosis scale. This scale determines the degree of osteoporosis
What should you do if you are diagnosed with osteoporosis?
If you are diagnosed with osteoporosis you should:
a- Change your life style to decrease the chances of failing:
1. Remove the obstacles, which block your way from home.
2. Use one of the leaning means such as canes to assist you to be balanced during walking.
3. If you are using tranquilizers or other drugs that cause dizziness, you should be careful especially if you wake up at night to go to the washroom.
b- Treating medicine
There are many options for the medicinal treatment such as hormonal treatment, calcium, calciotinin, building steroids and fluorides. So, please consult your doctor to explain and determine the suitable treatment in each case.
The blood pressure is considered one of the contemporary diseases that occurs as a result of the changes in the life styles. It is called the silent deadly illness, as it is not accompanied by any symptoms at the beginning. But it is easily discovered during routine check ups, and it could be controlled by changing the life style and with drug treatments, if necessary.
What is blood pressure?
The arterial pressure is the effort exerted by the heart to pump the blood to various body organs by the arteries. It is a result of the balance between the performance of the heart and the ability of the arteries and their flexibility in accommodating the blood-flow that is done by the heart.
What is the normal blood pressure and how is it measured?
Measuring the blood pressure is a part of any routine tests where two measurements are taken:
The first reading: this refers to the upper pressure when the muscle of the ventricle contracts and the blood is pressured to the aortic artery and the rest of the body parts. The normal reading for the upper pressure ranges between (110 – 139) mm mercury (it is usually more in old people).
The second reading: this refers to the lower pressure when the muscle of the heart relaxes and the blood pressure decreases to its lowest limit. It normal limits ranges between (70 – 89) mm mercury.
When is the blood pressure considered high?
When the blood pressure reaches or exceeds 90 / 140 mm mercury.
What are the classifications of the blood pressure?
The primary blood pressure
These are the situations where the reasons of the blood pressure remain unknown, because they are not resulting from specific disease causes and they constitute 90% of the blood pressure cases.
There are factors, which increase the chances of suffering from this type such as:
· Hereditary factor.
· Following unhealthy life style such as eating fat-rich foods and excessive consumption of table salt.
· Obesity and overweight.
· Alcohol drinking.
· Excessive consumption of beverages such as coffee and tea.
· Using some drugs such and contraceptive drugs.
· Repeated exposure to psychological pressures and emotions.
Secondary blood pressure
These are cases of high blood pressure resulting from specific diseases such as: kidney, liver, or heart diseases, disturbances of the glands or the increase of minerals in the body. These cases constitute about 10% of the blood pressure.
What are the complications of the blood pressure?
· Problems in the muscle of the heart such as enlargement of the heart muscle or decrease in supplying the heart muscle with blood.
· Arteriosclerosis that lead to heart arrest.
· Kidney failure.
· Eye diseases.
What are the preventive measures?
· Routine medical examination.
· Maintaining the optimum weight and taking balanced foods.
· Regular practicing of sports.
· Avoiding acute psychological tensions; and taking rests after performing activities.
· Avoiding smoking and drinking alcohol.
· Taking balanced foods that contain fruits and vegetables that are rich in potassium, magnesium, fiber and vitamin C (see the schedule).
· Avoiding or reducing taking table salt and replace it with spices and herbs.
· Avoiding and reducing salty foods such as: canned products, pickles, nuts, sauces, salted and smoked fishes, and salty cheeses.
· Reduce drinking the drinks that contain caffeine such as coffee and tea.
· Reduce consuming fats especially the animal fats.
All fruits and vegetables especially bananas
Pulses (lentils, chickpeas, and broad beans).Seeds (sunflower seeds)Non-salted nuts (especially peanuts)Leafy green vegetables (spinach)Fish and seafoodWhole cereals such as oats and wheat
All vegetables, fruits and cereals
Citruses such as (lemon, orange, kiwi and strawberries
If the doctor decides that you are suffering from high blood pressure, and to maintain the normal blood pressure, you should do the following:
· Change the life styles by following the above-mentioned prevention measures.
· Monitoring the rate of blood pressure continuously at the nearest medical center or clinic or at home according to the doctor’s advice.
· Continuous follow-up of the treatment and taking prescribed dosages.
· At night: elevate the bed at the head side or use cushions.
· In the morning: get up slowly and then sit on the bedside for some minutes, then stand slowly and avoid standing for prolonged periods.
· Lying down or sitting when feeling dizzy.
· Watch for the following danger signs and contact the doctor immediately when noticed:
- Confusion / mixing up.
- Unclear vision.
- Temporary blindness.
As winter approaches and with weather changes, many people of different ages suffer from colds, influenza and sore throat and other related illnesses. If you or any of your family suffer from the previous problems, do you expect that the physician to prescribe an antibiotic for you?
Many people expect this, and some may ask the physician to prescribe an antibiotic for them and may insist on this.
The antibiotics are efficient drugs for many diseases, but they do not cure all kinds of infections
When antibiotics are used?
There are two types of microorganisms that cause the diseases: the viruses and bacteria. The most common infections are viral such as:
· All kinds of colds and influenza.
· Most coughs.
· Most throat infections.
· Some ear infections.
· Some sinus infections.
The antibiotics are used only to cure the bacterial infections, but they are not effective in curing viral infections. So, the physician usually does not prescribe antibiotics in case of cough or colds or other viral infections.
Using the antibiotics unnecessarily and prolonged usage of antibiotics causes many side effects and complications and may be dangerous. Improper usage of antibiotics kills the natural micro flora which lives in the body and will be replaced by the bacteria which will be resistant to the diseases and which will not respond to treatment. This is in addition to many side effects such as diarrhea, stomach pains, nausea and allergy and in severe cases may lead to difficulty in breathing.
So, it is important to watch for the following:
· The cold will last for many days or two or three weeks, and in most cases it will cure automatically.
· Yellow or green mucous discharge does not mean that you need antibiotics.
· Antibiotics do not cure most coughs (including bronchitis).
· Most of throat infections are not treated with antibiotics.
Using antibiotics to treat influenza and coughing will not prevent worsening the situation, and will not prevent pneumonia.
You can make use of the instructions of the physician or the health education specialist about how to cure the diseases that accompany some viral infections that bother you or you child, instead of using the antibiotics.
· Antibiotics do not cure most colds and influenza.
· Do not expect the physician to prescribe antibiotics for curing coughing or colds, and do not ask him to do so.
· Using antibiotics to treat the infections without the advice of the physician may lead to dangerous consequences.
· If the physician prescribes an antibiotic for you, you should take the full dosage even if your health improves. If some of the drug remains, do not store it or use it for other similar diseases.
· Do not reduce the duration of the treatment by yourself.
· Do not use the antibiotic if it is prescribed to someone else or if it was previously prescribed for you.
· Excessive use of the antibiotics will lead to the establishment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that will not respond to the treatment later.
· The antibiotics will cure bacterial infections only and they are not effective in curing viral infections.
· The antibiotics will not get rid of the viruses, but they will destroy the bacteria
What is Cholesterol?
This is a semi-fatty slimy substance that has a bad reputation. This is because high cholesterol is linked to arteriosclerosis and coronary diseases. Despite this bad reputation, cholesterol is one of the primary substances for the body and life. It is involved in the construction of the cell membrane in the body. Also, it is involved in the manufacture of many hormones and vitamin D.
Higher levels of cholesterol in the body lead to arteriosclerosis with time. All the body cells, especially the liver, make their needs of cholesterol. Cholesterol could enter the body through the food we eat.
There are many types of cholesterol
1- Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
These proteins transfer the cholesterol to different parts of the body to enable it to undergo various functions. High cholesterol in these lipoproteins will lead to its deposition on the walls of the arteries, especially the arteries of the heart. This is the harmful cholesterol.
2- High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
This is the beneficial cholesterol which transmits the cholesterol from various parts of the body, including the walls of the arteries to the liver where it will get rid of the cholesterol and it will transform it to the bile which is excreted with the stool.
Normal level of the cholesterol in the blood
The danger of the arteriosclerosis increases with the increased cholesterol in the blood, especially when the blood cholesterol exceeds (200) mg / 100 liters of blood or (5.2 mmoles / liter).
The normal level: more than 200 mg % (5.2 mmoles / Liter). This is the required level that will lead to the reduction of the coronary diseases.
The average level: A level between 200 – 240 mg % (6.2 mmoles / Liter) is considered a high level. The person who has this level has more dangers of having coronary disease with a rate more than the double as compared with the person with a normal level.
From where the cholesterol comes:
The cholesterol comes principally from two sources:
1. The liver: the body cells, especially the liver produce the required cholesterol to make the hormones and the other important materials.
2. The food: the cholesterol is found in the animal-origin foods such as butter, animal fat, egg yolk, milk and its products. Other vegetable-origin foods do not contain cholesterol.
So, what are the factors, which lead to higher cholesterol in the blood and increase the dangers of coronary diseases. They are two types:
· Nutritional factors:
- Improper nutritional habits.
- High consumption of animal fats.
- High consumption of sweets, confectioneries and soft drinks.
· 2- Non-nutritional factors:
- Hereditary factors.
- Less movements.
- Obesity and overweightness.
- Daily pressure and tension.
- Diseases such as:
1. High blood pressure.
3. Pancreas infections.
4. Decrease in the thyroid gland secretions.\
The relationship between cholesterol and vasco-coronary diseases
When the cholesterol rate increases in the blood, it may deposit on the walls of the arteries, which will lead to the narrowing and arteriosclerosis.
The deposition of the cholesterol over the years may lead to the blockage of the arteries and slowing the flow of the blood to vital organs including the heart which needs oxygen and the other nutrients which are transferred by the blood. This blockage will lead to depriving the heart from having its requirement of oxygen, which will lead, to chest pains (heart attack or angina).
The cholesterol is deposited slowly and over many years. As high cholesterol does not have any symptoms, the probability of its discovery is very low, but the physician can determine if someone is suffering from high cholesterol through doing a simple blood test. He could then provide the help needed to prevent its adverse consequences.
How to avoid high levels of cholesterol?
To keep the normal levels of cholesterol in the blood, the following should be done:
· Routine health examinations through doing routine blood examination to follow up the levels of the fat and cholesterol in the blood and do the necessary when the cholesterol level increases.
· Practicing sports as part of the daily activities (walking is considered the easiest and cheapest and most efficient sport practices).
· Maintaining the weight within the natural levels and decrease the weight if it is more. This is done through following healthy nutritional program to decrease the weight under the supervision of the nutritionist.
· Taking healthy and balanced foods and following healthy nutritional habits which include:
Avoid fats and fried foods and oils such coconut and palm oils, and use non-saturated fats such as soy oil, corn oil, and olive oil (this is in case of high cholesterol and if triglycerides are not high), and avoid taking all kinds of oils when the triglycerides increase.
- Replace the red meats with white meats and animal fats with vegetable fats as much as possible, and take foods which are high in fiber such as brown bread, oats, vegetables, fruits, pulses, lentils etc and avoid organ meat such as liver, kidney and brain.
- Avoid the sugars as much as possible.
If you are suffering from high cholesterol or heart disease, here are your proper nutritional guidelines:
Recommended foods to be avoided
· Fresh fruit juices
· Full fat milk
· All fresh and dried fruits
· Condensed milk
· All kinds of brown bread
· Dairy drinks such as Oval tine
· Boiled rice Butter
· Boiled macaroni
· Vegetable oils
· Coconut oil
· Fish oil
· Processed meats such as Mortadella
Psychological pressures are of various types and situations. They are widely spread to the extent that they affect everyone. Examples of such are: pressures of work, orphanage poverty, social isolation, upbringing the children, noise, and even expectations and imaginations.
The psychological pressures are:
The psychological, biological, and behavioral pressures that face the individual result from external and internal factors. These factors are known as the pressure causes.
The importance of the psychological pressures increases due to the role they play in inflicting health damages on the body. Thus, the body gets exposed to various infections and its immunity decreases.
In fact, the start of suffering from the psychological pressures improves the immune system of the individual, but repeated pressures lead to weakening the endurance of the individual and they affect the brain and all biological functions such as the following:
· The five senses.
· The hormonal balance.
· Heart and arteries.
· Respiratory system.
· Immune system.
· Nervous system.
· Digestive system.
· Sexual and urinary systems.
The health problems associated with the psychological pressures:
· The digestive system diseases: difficulty in breathing, hay fever, and tuberculosis.
· Skin diseases: eczema, itching, and psoriasis.
· Diseases associated with the muscular system and the skeleton: joint inflammation, lower back pains, migraine headache, rheumatic arthritis, and muscular spasms.
· Catabolism and anabolism in the body: increase and decrease in the secretions of the gland, diabetes.
· Circulatory system diseases: chronic heart diseases, primary blood pressure, and acute angina.
· Disturbances in the monthly menstrual period
· Exposure to accidents
· Positive psychological pressures
The psychological pressures are not considered bad, if they are positive, as they help in:
· Increase the productivity and creativity.
· Positive perception to circumstances.
· Disease resistance.
· Intellectual awareness.
· Good social relationships.
The people who are exposed to psychological pressures do not relax until they face the challenges and succeed in fighting them. Relaxation after success allows building a reserve of physical and psychological powers to face the following challenges.
The negative psychological pressures
The blood pressure is considered negative when it becomes continuous and does not allow any chances for relaxation after facing the challenges.
This exposes the body to the following:
· Easy anger.
· Lack of concentration.
· Lack of desire to communicate and interact.
· Decrease in the productivity and creativity.
Fortunately, there are some techniques that are established to treat the negative psychological pressures in the daily life, so that the individual lives happy and relaxed.
Programs to treat the psychological pressures
To see objects clearly, the light rays have to pass through the eye in form a straight line through the cornea and the eye lens.
When the rays reach the eye lens, it refracts them and collects them to a point over the retina. In the retina, these light rays are transferred to signals that are transferred to the brain through the nerves. At the brain, these signals are interpreted to a language that is understood by the brain, and so we clearly see the picture and recognize it.
There are two kinds of vision weakness:
We mentioned before that in order to see the objects clearly in front of us, the light rays have to pass through a point over the retina after they pass through the eye lens. But in this case the rays pass in front of the retina and not over it.
So, there have to be an additional lens which we put in front of the eye to help the eye lens to collect the rays pass on the retina and not in front of the retina. As a result of this process, we could not see the far objects clearly, but we can see the near objects clearly.
Here the contrary happens, as the light rays do not pass in front of the retina but behind the retina. So, the eye needs an additional lens to help the eye so that the rays pass on the retina and not behind it. As a result of this process, we can not be able to see the near object clearly, but we can see the far objects clearly.
Advices to maintain the vision
- Do not lie down when watching the TV.
- Do not sit for long time concentrating on the computer.
- Do not sit near to the TV.
- The proper position for studying is as follows (as in the picture)
- Washing the hands with water and soap, especially before and after eating and after using the toilet and when touching a sick person.
- Taking a bath daily with water and soap to remove the dirt and opening the skin pores and activate the circulatory system.
- Washing the hair with water and shampoo to remove dust and dirt.
- Clipping the nails and cleaning the ears.
- Cleaning the teeth with toothpaste and brush after meals and before going to bed.
- Make sure to use the clean towels and wash them.
- Changing the underwear and clean the outfits.
- Avoid walking bare-footed.
- Avoid using the others’ personal effects such as cloths, combs and towels.
Hygiene of foods and drinks
- Wash the hands before preparing the food.
- Wash the fruits and vegetables with water and soap and dry them with clean towel and remove the damaged parts.
- Use clean utensils and wares.
- Store the foods in closed containers inside the fridge.
- Store the dry foods such as cereals and pulses in closed containers and keep them in dry places.
- Use clean water for drinking and cooking. If you are not sure about the cleanliness of the water, boil it before use.
- Cook the food thoroughly to kill the microbes.
- Make sure to clean the kitchen by cleaning the floors, fridge, cooking surfaces and food preparation areas.
- Follow the healthy conditions while dealing with the food such as avoid sneezing, cover the wounds, and use hair caps when preparing the food.
- Store the cleaning chemicals and pesticides in a special cabinet.
- Avoid spraying pesticides while preparing or taking foods.
Hygiene of the home environment
- Ventilate the home to provide pure air and prevent the danger of having respiratory and contagious diseases.
- Clean the home daily and use sanitizers especially for the washrooms.
- Proper disposal of the house garbage by putting it in closed bags.
- Clean the air conditioners weekly and remove the dust.
- Fight the pests and insects.
- Keep the water tanks clean and close them properly to prevent the contamination
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